Copernican’s heliocentric theory (you don’t know Copernicus and heliocentric theory)
In Ptolemy (Claudia Ptolemy, 90-168), there has been a dispute between heliocentric and geocentric theories. After the emergence of the Ptolemaic system, the geocentric theory won an overwhelming victory and has been used for a long time. *** Astronomers of the Middle Ages (800-1000) loved the Ptolemaic system and introduced many revisions to make it more precise.
*** Astronomers collected Ptolemy’s astronomy and edited it into the “Encyclopedia of Astronomy”, also known as “The Grand Theory”. Now we think a lot of it is the opinion of medieval Christian astronomers, and there may not be much that really belongs to Ptolemy. There are dozens of lunar eclipse records in the astronomical encyclopedia, which are almost exactly the same as the lunar eclipse records in “Zuo Zhuan” of our country. This can only be explained by the fact that *** astronomers copied the lunar eclipse records from Zuo Zhuan and added them to Ptolemy’s book.
Ptolemy’s geocentric theory wins in precision. Ptolemy used the large wheel as the transmission wheel and the small wheel as the epicycle. The Greeks discovered that the movements of the planets and sun were irregular, which could solve problems such as the difference in seasons. This predecessor has already done it, and Ptolemy is just a continuation, and there are things beyond the predecessors. The old tradition was that the sun and planets moved at the same speed. Ptolemy broke with this tradition, so it can be more precise. Ptolemy invented the equal diameter (equant), which is to move the center of the circle slightly. This effect is that the movement speed is the same from the edge, but different from the center. 400 years later, Kepler’s basic method of solving problems was actually to imitate Ptolemy. Using Kepler’s elliptical orbit and two focal points, Ptolemy adjusted the equidiameter (halved) distance from the Earth, and the result was the same.
The problem with the Ptolemaic system is first of all that there are slight deviations, and the accumulation is scary. As time goes by, the deviation of the Julian calendar is getting bigger and bigger. Copernicus therefore decided to reject Ptolemy’s old system and establish a new one.
Another problem with Ptolemy’s system was that he did not know the distances between the earth and the sun and the planets. Ptolemy didn’t know how big the transfer and current wheels of Venus should be. The resulting Venus transfer wheel was made smaller than the current sun wheel and could explain the position of Venus, but not the moon phases of Venus. Galileo gave up the Ptolemaic system and chose Copernicus, which is one of the reasons. In fact, it is not a problem with the Ptolemaic system. Ptolemy did not have a telescope, so the design was wrong, which can be solved by modification. Tychobra did exactly that.
The bigger problem with Ptolemy’s system is that he thought the earth was spherical, which laid the foundation for Copernicus to shift the center of the universe to the sun.
Pythagoras first proposed that the earth is spherical.
It is said that the ancient Greek mathematician and philosopher Pythagoras (about 580 BC – about 500 BC) was also a Freemason in history.
Pythagorean schoolPut forward the view that the earth revolves around a “central fire”, so it is also called a cult that worships the sun and fire.
Hypatia (c. 370-415) was born in Egypt. He was a famous mathematician, astronomer and philosopher in ancient Greece. Known as one of the female mathematicians in the world, she died tragically at the hands of savages.
Parthia’s father Cyon was a famous mathematician and astronomer who taught and researched in the famous Alexandria Museum. Parthia was extremely beautiful, but she was not married. Parthia studied the writings of Ptolemy, co-wrote reviews of astronomical achievements with her father Cyon, and independently wrote the Handbook of Astronomy, among others.
Sion supports the theory of the center of the earth. Parthia never embraced the geocentric model. Her notes in Ptolemy’s Astronomy show that she explicitly rejected Ptolemy’s geocentric theory in favor of a heliocentric one.
In March 415 AD, as usual, Hypatia went to the museum to give lectures in her beautiful carriage. Beside the Caesarea Church, a group of thugs rushed over immediately and stopped the carriage according to Bishop Cyril’s order. They pulled her from the Yo-Yo Ma resource network car and quickly dragged her into the church. The thugs stripped her naked and then cut open her flesh with sharp clamshells until she was bloodied and dying. The mob chopped off her hands and feet and threw her limbs into the blazing fire.
Copernicus studied with the astronomer Domenico Maria de Novara in Bologna, then went to the Medici family library in Florence. It was only there that he could see Ptolemy’s Great Astronomy, a work which may have been influenced by Hypatia’s comments.
Hermes Works Collection
Three revolutionary ideas put forward by Copernicus – the movement of the earth in the sky, the rotation of the earth’s rotation, the rotation of the earth and other planets orbit of the sun. It is said that these three ideas all came from Hermetica A.
There is a passage in Hermes Anthology: “The sun is the center of the universe. There are eight spheres around the sun. One sphere is all the stars, six spheres are six planets, and one surrounds the earth. ”
Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) was a Polish astronomer and priest and Freemasons.
In 1514, Copernicus published a booklet of astronomy “A Brief Commentary”, which has become famous ever since. This pamphlet has no title, but Tycho Brahe gave it a title, which shows that although Tycho Brahe did not agree with the heliocentric theory, he still attached great importance to different opinions.
Copernicus’s “A Brief Commentary” was a booklet of only 20 pages, and it took 30 years to expand into a 200-page “On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres”. The brief comment puts forward seven hypotheses.
1. Celestial bodies do not share the same center.
2. The center of the earthNot the center of the universe.
3. The center of the universe is close to the sun.
4. Compared with the distance from the earth to the stars, the distance from the earth to the sun is negligible.
5. The apparent movement of the stars on Sunday is the result of the Earth’s rotation on its own axis.
6. The annual apparent motion sequence of the sun is the result of the earth revolving around it, and all the planets revolve around the sun.
7. The apparent retrogression of some planets is simply a result of our constantly changing position as observers on the moving Earth.
After seeing this pamphlet, Pope Leo X believed that Copernicus knew something about astronomy and invited Copernicus to revise the calendar. Copernicus rejected the work on the grounds that the movements of the sun and moon should be carefully coordinated before the calendar could be improved. In fact, from the perspective of calendar application, without this necessity, it is impossible to make the movement of the sun and moon very accurate.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn (192-1996) and Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) both believed that the movement of the moon was so complicated that Copernicus could not make it very precise and harmonious .
Copernicus rejected the Pope’s invitation, which attracted the attention of the church. In 1533, John Albrecht, private secretary to Pope Clement VII, gave a small lecture on Copernican’s heliocentric theory in the Vatican Gardens. Only senior clergy are invited to attend. Pope Clement VII was the adopted son of Lorenzo de’ Medici (1449-1492), the most famous statesman of the Medici family and de facto ruler of Renaissance Florence. Shortly after the speech, Pope Clement VII died that same year.
In 1534, Paul III became Pope. In 1535, a Cardinal Nicola von Thornberg, a Cardinal of the University of Paul III under Paul III, became interested in Copernicus’ theories and requested that all of Copernicus’ writings be copied and sent to Rome. In 1536, he also wrote to Copernicus, pleading with Copernicus to publish heliocentric theory to the academic community. Cardinal Thunberg’s behavior is very unusual and completely contrary to Catholic tradition. He has always advocated reforming the church. That same year, shortly after Cardinal Thunberg wrote the letter, he died.
In 1541, Copernicus proposed the theory of celestial motion to Pope Paul III, saying that it was just a hypothesis and did not intend to become a practical system.
In 1543, before his death, Copernicus published the theory of celestial motion and advocated the heliocentric theory. Before his death, he just touched the newly published theory of celestial motion.
The Protestant Andreas Osiander wrote a preface to Copernicus’s work and pretended that Copernicus himself wrote the preface. Copernicus’ close friend, the Protestant George Rheticus, eagerly pushed for the possibility of publication. Rheticus, fearing that the author would be ridiculed, decided not to name Copernicus as the authorSigned, signed “Dr. Nicholas the Learned, Town of Tulum”. Osiander wrote to Rheticus that Aristotelian geocentric theorists and theologians were easy to appease. As long as we declare that there are many hypotheses that can be used to explain the motion of celestial bodies, they will eventually agree with the author. Copernicus probably knew about the discussion between the two before his death, and took an acquiescing attitude. Copernicus’ heliocentric theory said, “Don’t take it seriously. I just practiced math for fun, so I entered history.”
The heliocentric theory caused controversy.
Like Aristarchus in the early 17th century, Copernicus described a world in which the sun was stationary and the planets moved in circular orbits around the sun. While the idea is not new, its revival has met with fierce resistance. The Copernican model is considered to be in conflict with the Bible. Although the Bible never explicitly says so, it has always explained the planets orbiting the Earth. In fact, at the time the Bible was written, people believed the earth was flat. Copernicus’ model sparked a heated debate over whether the Earth stood still. The controversy culminated in Galileo’s heresy trials in 1633. He was charged with advocating the Copernican model, arguing that ‘after a belief has been proclaimed and determined to be in conflict with Scripture, it can still be held and defended as a possible belief’. He was found guilty, sentenced to life under house arrest, and forced to renounce his original beliefs. He is said to have muttered under his breath, ‘But it’s still moving. In 1992, the Roman Catholic Church finally admitted that it was wrong to condemn Galileo. —— Hawking’s “Grand Design”
Voice of Opposition
Leibniz, a member of the German Freemasonry, and Newton, a member of the British Freemasonry, disagree. Goethe of the German Freemasonry was also at odds with Copernicus of the Polish Freemasonry and Newton of the British Freemasonry.
The German poet Goethe opposed Copernicus. He once commented on Copernicus: “Copernicus’s theory of earthquakes shook the depths of human consciousness. From ancient times to the present, no original thought or invention can be compared with it. Soon after Columbus confirmed that the earth is spherical, the earth as the universe The honorific title of master has also been taken away. Since ancient times, human consciousness has never been so upside down. Because if the earth is not the center of the universe, then what countless ancient people believed in will become a void. Who still believes in the paradise of Eden, hymns and Religious stories?”
As soon as the Copernican theory was published, it was immediately viciously attacked by the new coaches Martin Luther and Calvin.
Calvin was the higher level astronomer of his time. Luther also quoted the “Bible” to rebut: “This **** actually wants to overturn all our astronomy, but the “Bible” clearly states that Joshua ordered the earth to stand still, not the sun”.
Martin wrote down the situation at that time. He kept a table about Copernicus, a transcript of the conversation: “There are rumors that new astronomers want to prove that the earth moves, not the sky, and that the sun and moon rotate. (Existing astronomy) justLike a man in a carriage or a boat, he may think that he is sitting still, while the earth and trees are walking… This fool wants to overturn the whole of astronomy. “
The Vatican loves heliocentrism.
The Vatican Church reacted strangely to Copernicus’s heresy.
Copernicus’s book was written before the death of Pope Paul III Dedicated to him. It was Pope Paul III who founded the Society of Jesus. Pope Paul III was very excited when he read Copernicus’s book, and gave Copernicus’ successor a precious manuscript collected by the Vatican as a reward.
The correctness of the heliocentric theory has never been proven.
Copernicus’ heliocentric theory is just a hypothesis without evidence. There were no airplanes or telescopes at that time, so Copernicus’s hypothesis could not be confirmed.
“In fact, a person who believes in Copernican’s theory has to set aside observations to believe in the hypothesis. Kepler’s teacher, Michael Meisling, still believed in Copernicus, even though he did not observe any stellar parallax. “(“New Cambridge Modern History of the World” Volume III)
Since Copernicus, many people think that the sun-centered theory is more correct than the earth-centered theory.
The fact is that the correctness of the heliocentric theory has been from Not proven. The heliocentric theory is not more correct, concise or accurate than the geocentric theory.
Since the Copernican era, scientists have become more and more fond of the heliocentric theory, and even have the illusion that the heliocentric theory has been fully proved. The fact is The heliocentric theory has never been proven.
In order to prove the heliocentric theory, scientists tried their best to use the following evidence:
Stellar aberration (aberration)
Coriolis Effect (Coriolis Effect)
Earth’s equatorial bulge
Geosynchronous satellites (geosynchronous satellites)
All these The evidence has been researched and criticized one by one, but none of them are established, so scientists still failed to prove that the earth is moving. Honest scientists admit that the heliocentric theory is only their preferred system, and it has not been proved.
Einstein once said in a very strange tone: “Since Copernicus, we have ‘know’ that the earth revolves and revolves around the sun. Everyone thinks they understand this simple idea. Scientific progress has never touched this field. Let us accept Copernicus’ view for now. “
Reading this passage, Einstein actually said that we thought we knew the rotation of the earth and the sun, but this is only “knowing” rather than “confirming”. If the progress of science touches this In the field of traditional concepts, if we study the heliocentric theory carefully, we may find that the heliocentric theory is not established. I just temporarily adopt Copernicus’ point of view, and do not necessarily agree with the heliocentric theory.
Stephen Hawking said: “Then, Tolle Encryption system or Copernican system, which one is realWhat about? Although it is often said that Copernicus proved Ptolemy wrong, this is not true. Just like our normal video compared to a goldfish video, one can use any kind of image as a model of the universe. As for our observation of the sky, it can be explained by assuming that the earth is stationary or the sun is stationary. Although the Copernican system has played a huge role in philosophical debates about the nature of our universe, its real strength is that the equations of motion are much simpler in a coordinate system where the sun is at rest. “(Hawking’s “Grand Design” Chapter 3 “What is Reality”)
Hawking said that Copernicus did not prove that Ptolemy was wrong, but Hawking said that Copernicus’ system was more concise, even this Nor is it true.