Space Station Space (Spaceship Picture)
Shenzhou 12 astronauts will return to Earth in groups, which means that more than half of the mission of the “key technology verification stage” between Tiangong Space Station has gone.
The first batch of astronauts stationed at Tiangong Space Station will return to Earth on Shenzhou 12.
According to the plan, there are a total of 6 launches at this stage. The tasks that have been executed include Long March 5B Yao 1, Long March 5B Yao 2/Tianhe 1 core module, Long March 7 Yao 3/Tianzhou No. 2 cargo spacecraft, Long March 2F Yao No. 12/Shenzhou No. 12 manned spacecraft.
The last two missions in the key technology verification phase will also be launched consecutively in less than a month, namely the Long March 7 Yao 4/Tianzhou 3 and the Long March 2F Shiyao/Shenzhou 13 .
Mission planning in the key technology verification stage
Four tasks carried out in the key technology verification stage
After the separation of the core modules of Shenzhou 12 and Tianhe 1 , will verify the radial rendezvous technique. After that, the core modules of Tianzhou-2 and Tianhe-1 will be separated from the rear docking interface and fly around to the front docking interface.
Zhou-2 flew to the front interface of the core module.
The newly launched Tianzhou-3 and Shenzhou-13 will be respectively connected to the rear and radial interfaces of the core module of Tianhe-1. At that time, Tiangong Space Station will form a T-shaped four-chamber (ship) assembly with a scale of nearly 50 tons in orbit, which will be carried by Tianhe-1 core module, Tianzhou-2 cargo spacecraft, Tianzhou-3 cargo spacecraft and Shenzhou 13. Human spaceship composition.
Shenzhou 13 after docking Tiangong air station combined form
Why didn’t Shenzhou 2 evacuate immediately after Shenzhou 12? Because it is still necessary to verify the on-orbit replenishment function of the propellant at the front interface of the core module, a robotic arm-assisted indexing test is performed.
The key technology verification stage has fundamental significance for Tiangong Space Station, mainly verifying propellant replenishment, regenerative life insurance, flexible solar cell wings and drive mechanism, large flexible component control, assembly construction, and extravehicular operation and 7 key technologies including on-orbit maintenance.
The large flexible solar wing configured in the core module of Tianhe-1
Picture of the second outboard mission of astronauts at Tiangong Space Station
with Shenzhou 12 The crew’s stay in orbit is different from 3 months, and the crew’s stay in orbit on Shenzhou 13 will be extended to 6 months, which will also be the normal stay of each batch of astronauts thereafter. After the crew of Shenzhou 13 completed the half-year on-orbit mission, next year, Tiangong Space Station will usher in another exciting moment, that is, the “on-orbit construction phase”. According to the plan, we will complete the on-orbit construction task before 2023, thus entering the normal operation stage.
The three mission phases of Tiangong Space Station
With the development of key technology verification tasks, people are gradually familiar with the mission process of this phase, but they are very concerned about the “in Orbital construction stage” still lacks sufficient understanding.
Coincidentally, a brand new manned spaceflight projectIt was made public during the Tianyuan Tiandi connection event, showing many task details during the on-orbit construction phase.
We all know that Tianhe-1 is the core module of Tiangong Space Station, but little is known about it. At this stage, the exact identity of Tianhe-1 is the “experimental core module”. After completing the key technology verification stage tasks and passing the status review, the core module of Tianhe-1 will directly become the “core module” in orbit. At that time, the core module of Tianhe-1 will make all preparations for the in-orbit construction phase tasks.
Photo of Tianhe-1 capsule
Most of the tasks in the track construction phase will be carried out during the Shenzhou 14 mission. The spacecraft will dock with the radial docking interface of the core module of Tianhe-1 in a local direction, making way for the axial docking interfaces of the two large experimental modules coming later.
Shortly after the crew of Shenzhou 14 entered Tianhe-1, the three major carrier rockets of Long March 5 and Yiyao will send the Tuoju Tianwen experimental module into the predetermined orbit. The target docking position of this module is the radial berth in the fourth quadrant of the core module of Tianhe-1.
Tian Wen’s experimental module rendezvous with the space station components in space
As a tracking aircraft, Sky-Quest’s experimental module has a 22-ton body, and the space station as a target aircraft The inter-combination also has 40 tons. In addition, the heterogeneous peripheral docking mechanism requires a large impact energy. If direct radial docking, the attitude control between space stations will become more complicated. Therefore, we adopted the scheme of axial butt joint first, and then index radial butt joint.
Axial docking of Tianwen experimental module and air station components
The arrival of Tianhao experimental module is equivalent to bringing a super value gift package to Tiangong air station. First arrange a considerable number of scientific research cabinets and load suspension points outside the cabin, and then arrange a small mechanical arm on the small column section of the cabin, which can be docked with the main robotic arm of the Tianhe core cabin to form a 15m long super-long mechanical arm. Based on the crawling function of the Tianhe Robotic Arm, it is completely possible to reach the entire Tiangong Sky Station.
The dual-arm combination of the Tianhe robotic arm and the Tianwen experimental cabin robotic arm
The Tianhao experimental cabin is also equipped with a dedicated airlock for personnel, which can be used as the Tianhe No. 1 airlock (node cabin) backup. In the absence of a dedicated airlock, traffic between the station and the cabin would be blocked during the astronauts’ out-of-vehicle activities. For example, during the two out-of-vehicle activities of the crew of Shenzhou-12, the traffic between the Shenzhou-12 spacecraft and the core module of Tianhe will be blocked. Once a danger occurs, it is difficult to make an effective response.
When the Tianhe airlock module was performing the task of leaving the module, the traffic between the core module and the Shenzhou spacecraft was blocked.
When the dedicated airlock is in place, this problem is perfectly solved. At that time, it will be the first choice for astronauts to carry out extravehicular activities.
A special airlock for the personnel of the Wentian Experimental Cabin.
It is worth noting that the door of the airlock module dedicated to the personnel of the Wentian experimental module faces the side of the earth, which is different from the side of the Tianhe-1 airlock module facing the space. After the space station completes the on-orbit construction task, it will change from a continuous yaw attitude to a three-axis stability on the groundAttitude, the exit hatch on the side facing the earth faces away from the sun, which is helpful for the astronauts to perceive the environment when they perform the task of exiting the cabin.
The imaging of the core airlock entry and exit chamber is disturbed by sunlight.
Compared with the crew of Shenzhou 12, when using the airlock of the core cabin to perform the task of leaving the cabin, when the combination runs to a sunny area, the image of the panoramic camera of the cabin door will be affected by strong Sunlight interferes with overexposure, and the process of leaving the cabin is a very critical stage, requiring the astronauts in the cabin and on the ground to guide the astronauts out of the cabin to make correct actions through the lens image.
With the help of the mechanical arm of the space experiment module, extravehicular activities are performed.
The most critical task in the track construction phase is the “docking” of the two experimental cabins, which is related to the success or failure of the entire station. Assuming that the Wentian experimental module cannot be relocated, it means that the axial docking interface is occupied, Mengtian’s follow-up experimental module cannot be docked, and even the number of spacecraft docking interfaces will be reduced from 3 to 2, which cannot achieve the overall mission goal of the space station.
Based on the irreversibility of indexing tasks, the space site has prepared two sets of indexing schemes to back up each other. The first is the indexing robot arm that comes with the experimental cabin. The rotating arm is connected with the base of the node cabin to drive the experimental cabin to turn up, rotate and turn down to realize indexing docking. The indexing manipulator has few moving joints and has the advantages of high reliability.
The indexing robot arm base for the docking experiment cabin
The indexing robot arm controls the indexing docking of the Qiaotian experimental cabin.
The main mechanical arm of the Tianhe core cabin is the backup means of the indexing mechanical arm. From the beginning of the design, the mechanical arm has established a load index of 25 tons, with the purpose of indexing and docking the service cabin and experiment cabin. The Tianzhou-2 cargo spacecraft, which is currently docked at the docking interface at the rear of the core module of Tianhe-1, will fly around to the docking interface at the front after the mission is over, and cooperate with the Tianhe robotic arm to carry out on-orbit indexing tests.
Tuesday cargo spacecraft cooperates with Tianhe robotic arm for indexing test.
After the docking of the Tianwen experimental module is completed, the Mengtian experimental module will also be docked during the Shenzhou 14 mission. The target docking position of this module is the radial berth of the second quadrant of the Tianhe-1 core module, and the docking method is exactly the same as that of the Tianwen experimental module.
Axial docking between Skywalker Experiment Module and Empty Space Station Components
Meng Hao Experiment Module is indexed and docked.
The orbital assembly process of Tiangong Space Station is like the Tai space Transformer, which needs to undergo multiple configuration evolutions such as I-shape, L-shape, and T-shape, which further highlights the strong adaptability of its attitude control system.
After the two experimental modules of Youyou Resource Network are docked, it means that the in-orbit assembly task of the three modules of Tiangong Space Station has been completed. The next step is to verify the last core capability, which is the on-orbit rotation of astronauts.
Assembly between the Tiangong Space Station after completing the on-orbit assembly task
Whether the astronauts have the ability to rotate in orbit determines whether the Tiangong Space Station has the ability to sustain manned residence. It is also a symbolic capability of the permanent manned space station.
At that time, the Shenzhou 15 spacecraft will take off on the Long March 2F Yao 15 carrier rocket and dock with the axial interface of the core module of Tianhe-1. At this time, the cabin (ship) section of Tiangong-[/k0/] station consists of Tianhe-1 core cabin, Tianwen experimental cabin, Mengtian experimental cabin, Tianzhou-5 cargo spacecraft, Shenzhou-14 manned spacecraft, Shenzhou-10 No. 5 manned spacecraft, and a combination.
Astronauts at Tiangong Space Station changed orbit for the first time
It is said that the core module of Tianhe-1 itself has the ability to dock with two Shenzhou spacecraft at the same time. Why wait until the station is empty to complete the assembly task before the astronauts rotate in orbit? This is because Qingtian’s experimental cabin is additionally equipped with three independent sleeping areas, and the core cabin of Tianhe-1 also has three independent sleeping areas. There are a total of 6 independent sleeping areas, which can guarantee the short-term living needs of 6 astronauts during the rotation period. After all the sleeping areas are in place, the on-orbit rotation can more comprehensively test the comprehensive support capability of the air station.
In the previous article, the author mentioned that the 22-ton Tianhe-1 core module can match the functions of the star core module + Suguang multi-function cargo module + Unity node module of the International Space Station by itself, and even exceed them . In fact, it is much more than that. Tiangong Space Station has not only achieved functional transcendence, but also completed a new transformation in design concept.
The third module of Tianhe-1 PK International Space Station
Wang Xiang, commander-in-chief of the manned space engineering space station system, pointed out that based on the concept of system science, all the cabins that make up Tiangong Space Station (including the visiting spacecraft) were originally independent aircraft, but after docking, they formed a combination controlled and managed by the air station. The merger process is effectively a handover or takeover of control. The control of the new cabin will be handed over to the air station, and the cabin and the resources in the cabin will be integrated into the air station, and will form a part of the new air station after expansion. Finally, the engineering effect of 1+1 is equal to 1 is realized.
Behind the fact that 1+1 is equal to 1 is the efficient integration of resources in each cabin of the air station. On the contrary, in many areas of the International Space Station, 1+1 is less than 1, as follows:
1. The power system only has one-way power supply capability. For example, many cabins at the International Space Station can only be powered by truss solar wings, which in turn block the solar wings of the Russian cabin, resulting in damage to the latter’s power supply capability.
The ISS truss sunwing has a prominent sunwing shading problem in the Russian module.
2. Thermal control resources cannot be concentrated. The empty non-Russian section of the international station has established a public fluid circuit system centered on the Destiny experimental cabin, realizing the sharing of local thermal control resources. However, due to the different fluid media in the Russian compartment and the non-Russian compartment, a more complete public fluid circuit cannot be established between the Russian compartment and the non-Russian compartment.
International Space Station Star Service Module (Russia)
3. Information systems are difficult to share. There are usually messy wiring connections between the various modules of the International Space Station. These are the manual cable connections made by astronauts on extravehicular missions.
The line connection between the international space station is chaotic
For example, during the activities of their astronauts out of the cabin, the helmet cameraThe transmission screen is often interrupted, which is the performance of information link blocking.
NASA extravehicular spacesuit image transmission interruption
Tiangong Space Station not only perfectly solved the above problems, but also realized new innovations. Based on the structure and motion control of spacecraft rendezvous and docking technology, resource sharing of fluid circuits is a basic skill.
The manned air station usually starts with a core module, but we have innovated the “three-cabin core combination (Tianhe-1+Tian Wen+Meng Tian)” on the basis of the strong core module of Tianhe-1 Program. The program achieves this height thanks to structural and motion control, information systems, energy systems, thermally controlled fluid circuits, manned environment, and propulsion systems.
Tiangong Space Station’s “three-cabin core component” ground verification module
In terms of power supply, the two large-tonnage experimental modules radially docked with Tianhe-1 form a nearly 40-meter With a large span, two large solar wings with two degrees of freedom are arranged at both ends of the two experimental cabins, achieving the effect of overcoming the mutual shading problem of the solar wings with a truss structure similar to the International Space Station. At the same time, the application of triple-junction flexible gallium arsenide cell technology with high photoelectric conversion efficiency makes the solar wing lighter and has higher power generation efficiency.
In order to solve the problem of solar wing shading, we have further innovated the on-orbit reconstruction function of the power system. The solar wings of the Tianhe-1 core module can be disassembled by astronauts with the help of a robotic arm, and then transferred to the trusses at the ends of the two experimental modules for installation, completely solving the problem of battery wing shielding, and this is exactly the purpose of the “three-module core assembly” Notable features.
The robotic arm assists the astronauts in transferring the solar wing of the core module.
At the same time, Tiangong Space Station has realized two-way power supply. The new docking cabin can not only obtain power from the station, but also reverse power supply to meet the greater power demand of other cabins.
Hitting *** is a basic function of an air station, and international air stations usually need to wear wired headphones or microphones to complete this task.
Astronauts on the International Space Station use wired devices to communicate with the world.
With the support of high-speed Internet, the astronauts in Tiangong space only need to wear wireless bone conduction earphones, or even no earphones. They only need the mobile phone to turn on the external sound to talk to each other. At the same time, cross-cabin information interconnection can also be realized. Astronauts can control another module in one module without frequent movement across modules.
Astronauts at the Tiangong space station can talk to each other without even wearing any equipment.
The “core components of the three cabins” are also reflected in the functional backup of the experimental cabin, including backup equipment such as control moment gyro, comprehensive display instrument, attitude and orbit control power supply. , and the launch interval between it and the core module of Tianhe-1 is only one year. In contrast, the scientific spacecraft of the International Space Station, which functions as a backup core module, was launched into space nearly 23 years later.
The “three-cabin core assembly” of Tiangong Air Station can be regarded as a larger and more powerful core module by Youyou.com. How powerful is it? Almost all hardware configurations of the International Air Station, such as airlock cabins dedicated to personnel, cargo dedicatedAirlock cabins, exposed experimental platforms, hardpoints, trusses, etc. , can be one-to-one correspondence in our “three-cabin core combination”.
Dream Lab Scalable Exposure Experiment Platform
In addition, the space utilization rate of the “three-chamber core components” is also very high. The 400-ton International Air Station is only equipped with 31 scientific research cabinets, what about us?
According to the scientific experiment resource manual of the air station, the 60-ton “three-compartment core assembly” can accommodate 23 scientific research cabinets. After the expansion project is implemented, the follow-up experimental cabin will have a larger space for empty scientific research cabinets. The scale of scientific research cabinets is not only 23 by 2, but will also greatly exceed the international/[/]
Tiangongkong T-type station to the trunk Expansion plan for station evolution
Tiangong Space Station is not only a master of manned spaceflight technology, but also a very advanced operating concept. Such an excellent platform will surely attract powerful players from all over the world to participate.
Tiangong is different from the gateway of the International Space Station. First of all, this is our National Space Laboratory. On this basis, we have established a shared and open cooperation model, that is, we provide space-to-ground transportation and on-orbit scientific research services, and all participating foreign parties must meet the conditions for sharing scientific research data and results with us, so as to truly achieve global Resources are available to us.
The first batch of foreign scientific research projects selected into Tiangong Space Station
Powerful platform + advanced operation plan, it can be said that Tiangong Space Station will become the rapid development of China’s aerospace industry and even the entire industrial system Force multiplier, we will break through faster than ever before.
Tiangong space station variable gravity research cabinet
When many Chinese people talk about the topic of comparing Chinese and foreign science and technology, they always have a preset thinking frame, that is, we need to use our own Efforts to PK the world, we will complain that any field is insufficient compared with a certain country, and Tiangong Sky Station is a masterpiece that uses its own efforts to PK the world.